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Comprehensions for generating values.


Comprehensions are a notation inspired by mathematical set-builder notation and list comprehensions that help to write succinct definitions of lists and sets. They also resemble SELECT queries as found in a language like SQL quite a bit.

Rascal generalizes comprehensions in various ways. Comprehensions exist for lists, sets and maps, and even for general values. A comprehension consists of an expression that determines the successive elements to be included in the result and a list of enumerators and tests (boolean expressions). The enumerators produce values and the tests filter them.

See Comprehensions, List Comprehension, Set Comprehension, and Map Comprehension for details. Have a look at Reducer to use a comprehesion to construct anything else but a list, set or map.


A standard example is

rascal>{ x * x | int x <- [1 .. 10], x % 3 == 0 }
set[int]: {9,81,36}

i.e., the squares of the integers in the range [ 1 .. 10 ] that are divisible by 3. A more intriguing example (that we do not give in full detail) is

{name | /asgStat(Id name, _) <- P}

which traverses program P (using the descendant match operator /, see Patterns) and constructs a set of all identifiers that occur on the left hand side of assignment statements in P.


  • Using comprehensions and pattern matching you can query any tree-like object and turn it into a graph or relation


  • Comprehensions can be arbitrarily nested, but that does not improve the readability of your code. Better split complex queries up into separate lines or even separate functions.