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The global architecture of the Rascal Tutor


The Rascal Tutor is a Markdown and Rascal source file pre-processor. As input it takes Docusaurus Markdown files organized in hierarchical folders, and Rascal modules organized in hierarchical packages. One root folder is called a "course". As output the pre-processor produces per course a folder hierarchy again, where each folder has its own file (generated or written). After the tutor compiler has generated such a consistent folder of interconnected markdown files, other downstream processors can turn them into (static) html websites, pdf files or otherwise. The standard way of processing is to use the Docusaurus static website generator.

The important features of the pre-processor, "compiler", are:

  1. The compiler is configured via PathConfig, where:
    • each entry in the srcs list is a single course
    • each entry in the libs list, be it a jar file or not, is searched for an index.value file to augment the current index.
  2. Concept hierarchy - each folder /X has its own index file, called either X/ or X/ Nested folders equal nested concepts.
  3. Indexing - to help in easy cross-linking between concepts:
    • Each concept of course A stored in X/Y/Z/ may be linked via Z, Y-Z, X-Y-Z, A:Z, A:Y-Z, A:X-Y-Z
    • Each Rascal module of course A named a::b::C may be linked via C, b-C, a::b::C, module:a::b::C, A:C, A:b-C, A:a::b::C, A:module:a::b::C
    • Each Rascal package of course A named a::b may be linked via b, a::b, package:a::b, A:b, A:a::b, A:module:a::b
    • Each image x.{png,svg,jpg,jpeg} stored in X/Y/Z may be linked as though it were a concept file.
    • The index is a rel[str,str] from the above described links to the files in the generated hierarchy.
    • The compiler reports missing links and ambiguous links as errors.
    • A single index.value file is written in the output folder for future reference by depending projects.
  4. Code execution ensures lively demonstrations which are checked for correctness.
    • Code blocks marked rascal-shell are executed line-by-line on the rascal shell prompt. Each prompt starts with a fresh environment. All error and standard output is captured and printed back. Content that serves HTML or any other file is also inlined in the output Markdown file.
    • Code blocks marked rascal-shell,continue are executed in the previously constructed environment (from top to bottom in the Markdown file) and behave the same otherwise.
    • Code blocks marked rascal-prepare with or without continue behave the same as above, except that no output or input is printed back into the output file.
  5. Links written between (( and )) are resolved using the previously described index.
  6. Table of contents are generated for the word TOC between three ((( brackets ))); the content of each concept is the concept nested under it in the hierarchy.
  7. Each Rascal file is indexed to list the declarations it contains and information is extracted:
    • data declarations with their doc, synopsis, examples etc. tags
    • (overloaded) function declarations with their doc, synopsis, examples etc. tags
    • alias declarations with their doc, synopsis, examples etc. tags

Features on the TODO list are:

  1. Interactive Questions (have to be revived)
  2. Screenshots of interactive ((Library:module:Content) visualizations

To implement these featues the following components are relevant:

  • lang::rascal::tutor::Indexer implements indexing and lookup
  • lang::rascal::tutor::Compiler implements linking, code execution, toc, and the generation of index files.
  • lang::rascal::tutor::apidoc::ExtractInfo parses Rascal code and generates an intermediate overview
  • lang::rascal::tutor::apidoc::GenerateMarkdown generates a single Markdown file for each Rascal module, and also reuses Compiler to process embedded markdown with code examples, links, etc.
  • lang::rascal::tutor::repl::TutorCommandExecutor encapsulates a Rascal REPL as a set of closures (eval, reset, and prompt)
    • for efficiency's sake a single executor is shared among all Markdown and Rascal files that are compiled in a single run. Between every file the executor is reset for a new environment, but previously loaded modules remain in the heap available for reuse.


  • Index creation is modular: an index is created per course and these indices are combined at runtime.
  • Code execution is reasonably time efficient, although it may require quite some memory because eventually an entire course will be loaded.


  • Courses are compiled on a per-course basis. Support for incremental courses compilation is not yet available.
  • Badly balanced code block quotes are not detected by this pre-processor but will fail HTML compilation downstream.
  • Manual links are not checked at compile-time by this pre-processor but fill fail HTML compilation downstream.