# Rewriting

#### Synopsis

Rewriting using pattern-directed invocation

#### Description

A rewrite rule is a recipe on how to simplify values.
Remember: (*a* + *b*)^2^ = *a*^2^ + 2 *ab* + *b*^2^?
A rewrite rule has a pattern as left-hand side -- here: (*a* + *b*)^2^ -- and a replacement as
right-hand side -- here: *a*^2^ + 2 *ab* + *b*^2^.
Given a value and a set of rewrite rules the patterns are tried on every subpart of the value and replacements are made if a match is successful. This is repeated as long as some pattern matches.

Rascal has ancestors, notably ASF+SDF, where rewriting was the most important computation mechanism. In Rascal, rewriting can be achieved using pattern-directed invocation, see Function Declaration, possibly combined with a Visit statement.

#### Examples

In a package for symbolic differentiation it is desirable to keep expressions in simplified form in order
to avoid intermediate results like `add(product(con(1), x), mul(con(0), y))`

that can be simplified to `x`

.
The following definitions achieve this:

`Exp simp(add(con(n), con(m))) = con(n + m); ❶ `

Exp simp(mul(con(n), con(m))) = con(n * m);

Exp simp(mul(con(1), Exp e)) = e;

Exp simp(mul(Exp e, con(1))) = e;

Exp simp(mul(con(0), Exp e)) = con(0);

Exp simp(mul(Exp e, con(0))) = con(0);

Exp simp(add(con(0), Exp e)) = e;

Exp simp(add(Exp e, con(0))) = e;

default Exp simp(Exp e) = e; ❷

Exp simplify(Exp e){ ❸

return bottom-up visit(e){

case Exp e1 => simp(e1)

}

}

❶ Definitions of the function

`simp`

are given with different patterns as formal arguments. Each definition is responsible for one particular simplification (here is where the similarity with rewrite rules surfaces).❷ A default for

`simp`

is given: if no other definition applies, the default one is used.❸ The actual

`simplify`

function: it performs a bottom up visit of the expression, replacing each subexpression by a simplified version.

See Derivative for a full explanation of this example.